excel relative cell reference
Most formulas you create contain references to cells or ranges. These references enable your formulas to dynamically process the data contained in those cells or ranges.
For example, if your formula references cell C2 and you change the value contained in C2, the formula result automatically reflects the new value.
If you are not using references in the formula, you will need to edit the formula itself to change the value used in the formula.
When using cell (or range) references in formulas, you can use three types of references – relative, absolute, and mixed.
relative cell reference
When you copy the formula to another cell, the row and column references may change because the references are actually offsets from the current row and column. By default, Excel creates relative cell references in formulas.
absolute cell reference
When the formula is copied, the row and column references do not change because the references are actual cell addresses. Absolute references use two dollar signs in their addresses: one for the column letter and one for the line number (for example, $A$5).
mixed cell references
Either row or column reference is relative, the other is absolute. Only one address part is absolute (for example, $A5 or A$5).