Recently, the ByteDance technical team released a forecast on the development trend of front-end technology in 2022, summarizing 6 changes that may occur in front-end technology in the new year, let us learn from it.
Trend 1 New front-end standard
On October 28, 2014, W3C officially released the HTML5.0 recommended standard to allow front-end technology to flourish. Although HTML6.0 is currently in the proposal stage, the community has started to have some sporadic discussions, so maybe it’s not too far from us. In 2022, HTML6 may not be launched, but there may be more proposals that are beneficial to user experience.
After Facebook changed its name to Meta, the metaverse topic was very hot, but suddenly overnight, the discussion seemed to transition from the metaverse to Web 3.0.
The transition from Web 1.0 to 2.0 has greatly changed front-end technology. In the Web 3.0 era, it may be decentralization, the Internet of Things, or artificial intelligence, and it is worthy of attention of every front-end developer.
Trend 2 Framework, Engineering and Experience
In StackOverflow’s “Most Popular Web Frameworks” survey, excluding SSR rendering frameworks and jQuery, there are five front-end frameworks on the list:
React, Vue, and Angular are still a strong triangle going forward. In 2022, Vue3 will become the default version of Vue, and React 18 will also release the official version. From the current community attention, Vue3 source code Github star 27k+, React 18 WG Github star 3.9k+, and in terms of npm downloads, the new The number of downloads is relatively substantial, so it is likely that more people will try and use it this year.
Packagers can be roughly divided into traditional compilation and ESM hybrid compilation. Since ESM hybrid compilation packagers depend on other packagers, theoretically, NPM downloads can never exceed their dependencies. At the same time, the overall performance of ESM hybrid compilation was mediocre this year.
Due to the popularity of modular CSS, tree shaking, and MVVM, the choice of UI framework is not so important. You can choose a UI that matches the project style for the framework you choose. It is also expected that there will be no dark horses breaking in and changing this year.
Trend 3 Intelligent construction is just in time
The rise of low-code
Since the beginning of 2021, the low-code industry has received constant attention, and it has also triggered heated discussions and research among many companies.
In the early stage of low-code development, the types of manufacturers were diversified. Traditional software manufacturers and large Internet manufacturers were involved in the low-code field. General-purpose manufacturers had more extensive application scenarios than vertical manufacturers, so there were more manufacturers. However, as the market matures and the competition of general-purpose manufacturers intensifies, vertical manufacturers will show obvious advantages in the segmented field, and can further explore user scenarios and improve product capabilities and user satisfaction. Only by laying out the low-code industrial ecology early and expanding the advantages of manufacturers in multiple dimensions can they occupy the high ground in the future.
AI and Graphical Exploration
As an inter-era technology, artificial intelligence shines in various fields. In recent years, the attempt and application of AI capabilities in the front-end field have brought a new round of technological revolution.
Ali’s imgcook can intelligently generate different types of codes such as React, Vue, Flutter, and small programs by identifying design drafts (Sketch / PSD / pictures), and automatically generated 79.34% of the front-end code in the double 11 promotion in the same year, intelligently generated The code is no longer just an offline experimental product, but actually generates value.
In 2022, with the gradual improvement of low-code and graphical technologies, the two will improve and achieve each other. The user can restore the page through AI and then adjust the page through the low-code platform. The whole process can basically complete the construction of the entire page without writing any code. Building the page will really become very simple.
Trend 4 Cross-platform technology prying open the door to a multi-“terminal” world
With the evolution from the PC era to the mobile Internet era, the native client is gradually inclined to the cross-platform solution due to its own ceiling. Of course, this is due to the obvious advantages of the cross-platform solution. For developers, multi-terminal reuse can be achieved at one time, which can greatly reduce R&D costs and improve product performance. However, the cross-platform technology of the mobile terminal does not only consider that a set of codes can run in different scenarios, but also needs to solve the problems of performance, dynamism, R&D efficiency and consistency.
React Native vs Flutter
React Native is a typical framework for developing native applications with web technologies. But compared with many html-based cross-platform frameworks, Flutter is definitely the framework with the best experience, and the performance and construction ideas are almost the closest to native development.
Although Flutter currently has the best cross-end performance and experience, the number of followers is comparable to React Native. Due to the first-out advantage of React Native and the influence of React, many APPs have entered the stock stage, and few new APPs have appeared. Therefore, most APPs will not undergo technical changes without sufficient revenue. So in 2022, if there are no major technical changes in both, except that the number of people who pay attention to Flutter will gradually increase, there will probably not be any major changes in the two.
At present, there are more than 10 mainstream applet platforms, including Tencent’s WeChat applet and QQ applet; Ali’s Alipay applet and Taobao light shop; ByteDance’s Toutiao applet and Douyin applet; Baidu applet, etc.; different The implementation standards of the platforms are different, and developers need to learn the development specifications of different platforms for customized development.
With the emergence of some cross-end frameworks (Uniapp, Taro), some cross-end converters are basically no longer maintained, and this is only a supplement. Let’s learn about some cross-end converters next:
wept: WeChat applet real-time running tool, currently supports the running environment on both ends of the Web and iOS;
hera-cli: A development framework for writing cross-platform applications in small programs, which can be packaged into Android, iOS applications, and H5;
weweb-cli: A front-end framework compatible with applet syntax, you can use applet writing to write web applications
The cross-end technology is not intended to completely replace native development. For each scenario, we can use native code to write the best performance. However, this is too much work. In actual project development, it is necessary to master the balance between efficiency and optimization. Cross-end usage scenarios are not necessarily project-level, but can be business-level or even page-level.
The advantage of cross-end is that it allows us to write more efficient code and have a richer ecology, while also bringing good performance.